Looking at secular performance, Dominique Caubet describes the linguistic games of Maghrebi comics, who use codeswitching, phonology, and literal translation to achieve comedic effect. Louis Boumans and Jan Jaap de Ruiter provide an overview of Moroccan Arabic in the European diaspora, covering its situation, status, presence in education. In another take on codeswitching, Janice L. Jake and Carol Myers-Scotton compare the use of specific structures between generations that indicate certain socioprag- matic orientations.
In the last chapter, K. Dallas Kenny explores the relationship between hesitations in codeswitching and first language attrition using data from an Arab immigrant community. Addressing some of the central themes of Arabic sociolinguistics, this volume provides a broad spectrum of perspectives for the sociolinguist. Many of the authors expand on earlier work in the field, including that of Clive Holes, Charles Ferguson, and Dilworth Parkinson.
Those authors that discuss diglossia explicitly, such as Eisele, offer interesting and well- researched critiques. Others, like Eid and Gibson, present new arguments about the effects of diglossia in contact situations based on their original data. Both El Wer and Ennaji raise impor- tant questions for discussions of diglossia by analyzing the significance of speaker education as a variable for Arabic. Given the theoretical focus on language contact, diglossia is a signif- icant theme in this collection, but not the only one.
Taken as a sociolinguistic textbook, this collection provides a range of examples of method- ologies and approaches to the field. Analyses are based on oral communication including con- versation, interviews, and public performance as well as written sources such as canonical literature and the press. Related Papers. By said oumanna. Arabic Political Discourse Analysis. Sociolinguistic studies of West and Central Africa. Second, with respect to phonological distance, even when an analogy with wordlikeness is held up, phonological distance was operationalized differently in the current study and it referred to whether the phonological form of the word encoded a novel StA phoneme, rather than whether the compositional structure of the word was novel.
This aspect of novelty has not been tested before, and the results of the current study show that it has a strong and persistent effect on phonological processing in children and especially so in SLI children.
This finding has clear theoretical implications, as well as important practical implications. Theoretically, the results imply that theories of language development and impairment cannot be agnostic to the sociolinguistic context within which language acquisition is embedded and to the distributional nature of linguistic knowledge and representation that is true of bilingual and bilectal children.
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Moreover, the findings imply that cognitive deficits, such as memory and metalinguistic skills are not purely cognitive or insensitive to language-specific linguistic factors. Rather, they are impacted by linguistic representations, and in as much as these linguistic representations are inaccurate or unstable any operation on or access to these representations should be expected to be more difficult to demonstrate Swan and Goswami, ; Foy and Mann, In terms of practical and clinical implications, the results demonstrate that the phonological deficits observed in SLI are exacerbated in the Arabic context by linguistic distance making phonological processing particularly challenging for Arabic speaking children.
In turn, early intervention with Arabic speaking SLI children should probably suspend attention to these units and should begin, instead, with those phonological and lexical units that are familiar to children from their spoken Arabic vernacular. At the same time, after some basis of phonological representations and processing has been established, particular focus to the phonological distance between SpA and StA should be given particular attention, especially when children start learning to read and given the fact that literacy acquisition in Arabic happens only in the standard variety Saiegh-Haddad and Everatt, Another practical implication concerns diagnosis of and intervention with SLI.
The results of the study indicate that novel phonological units are particularly difficult for SLI children and in kindergarten in particular, and this effect surfaces even when short words are employed. For instance, the results of the non-word repetition task showed that one syllable non-novel non-words yielded similar repetition scores in all four groups tested, whereas the repetition of two syllable non-novel non-words and 1—2 syllable novel non-words, yielded different scores in the four groups.
All this implies that to diagnose young children with SLI, attention to novel phonological units in conjunction with word length is warranted, and it should be given thorough attention in task construction and performance interpretation, especially as the two factors may be used to make different inferences regarding the nature of the underlying difficulty and hence different implications for intervention. Word length is a quantitative constraint on memory capacity and an effect of length in the absence of a phonological distance effect might imply difficulty with memory span.
In contrast, phonological distance effect even in the case of short words might imply phonological representational quality problems disrupting storage and processing in memory. The effect of this factor is naturally exacerbated in longer words as our results show. The results of the current study show that two factors that pertain to Arabic diglossia affect phonological storage in working memory in Arabic speaking TD and SLI children.
These are lexical distance and phonological distance. Moreover, the impact of these factors on phonological memory surfaces in different ways in shorter and longer words implying, hence, an interaction between the quantitative length memory span factor and the qualitative linguistic distance representational factor.
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It is to be remembered that the evidence we report in this article is based on a small sample size and on a cross-sectional design. These are two critical limitations on the generalizability of the results we report. Moreover, the results of the current study are based on Arabic native speaking children living in Israel, and they should be replicated among speakers of Arabic in other regions in the Arabic-speaking world.
Finally, phonological and lexical distance was operationalized in this study based on a local dialect of Palestinian Arabic vernacular spoken in the north of Israel; Linguistic distance is a variable concept and it is realized differently in different regions and with different spoken Arabic vernaculars. Future research that replicates the design of the current study but targets other phonological and lexical structures is warranted in order to demonstrate the external validity of the results reported in this study.
Finally, despite the fact that our SLI sample was screened based on various language tasks, including phonology and lexicon, many more of these tasks tapped into phonological processing. Thus, the possibility that our SLI sample had more phonological deficits than other language deficits cannot be precluded.
This paper was co-authored by ES-H and OG-D and is based on a doctoral dissertation conducted by the second author under the supervision of the first author. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Other factors may include phonological segmentation, phonological blending, and assembly of articulatory motor programs.
The use of this variety for reading and writing in the electronic media emerges naturally among users and no formal instruction in using it is provided. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Psychol v. Front Psychol. Published online Nov Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article was submitted to Language Sciences, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology.
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Received Jun 23; Accepted Nov 3. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: Arabic, specific language impairment SLI , language disorders, diglossia, non-word repetiton, linguistic distance, pseudo word learning.
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The study addresses the following questions: Do Arabic SLI children underperform age-matched TD children on word and non-word repetition tasks? Experimental tasks Word repetition The study used a word repetition task that targeted two facets of the linguistic distance between SpA and StA: lexical distance and phonological distance.
Non-word repetition The impact of linguistic distance on non-word repetition was only addressed by targeting phonological distance. Method and analytical strategy To test our hypotheses, we used aggregate scores for the four study measurements, that is, we aggregated successful responses over the number of trials into scores per each task, and then compared children of different groups SLI, TD and in different grade-levels Kindergarten, First Graders.
Table 1 Summary Statistics and post-hoc ranking results for word and non-word repetition. Open in a separate window. Word repetition: lexical and phonological distance effects The second and main question addressed in this study pertained to the effect of the lexical and phonological distance between SpA and StA on repetition in Arabic diglossia. Table 2 Means and standard deviations of word repetition by group, word type, and syllabic length. Figure 1. Non-word repetition: phonological distance effects Performance on the non-word repetition task was analyzed using the repeated measure ANOVA model on each syllable length condition separately.
Table 4 Means and Standard Deviations for Non-word Repetition by group, phonological novelty, and syllable length. Figure 2. Discussion The current study is an investigation of the impact of diglossia on phonological memory in Arabic speaking SLI children and in TD age-matched controls.
General phonological memory deficits in Arabic SLI The current study set out to investigate phonological deficits in Arabic SLI with particular focus on the impact of linguistic distance. Diglossia reflexes on word and non-word repetition of novel phonological and lexical forms in Arabic The results discussed in the previous section are based on overall scores and do not take into account possible differences in phonological memory that may be associated with linguistic distance, namely availability or not of the linguistic unit in the spoken variety used by children in everyday speech.
Conclusion and limitations The results of the current study show that two factors that pertain to Arabic diglossia affect phonological storage in working memory in Arabic speaking TD and SLI children. Author contributions This paper was co-authored by ES-H and OG-D and is based on a doctoral dissertation conducted by the second author under the supervision of the first author.
Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Appendix A Table 6 Screening tasks: summary statistics and repeated measure anova results. Footnotes 1 As argued by some e.
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